Commentary on Chapter 12 of 'Galaxies For Intelligently Designed Minds'
This chapter discusses the complexity of time and proposes that time is possibly different at different points of the universe, although presently it is assumed to be immutable and unchangeable across the same. This is firmly believed by cosmologists, at least since the time Einstein came up with the idea of the space-time in which he tied up space with time, extending it ad-infinitum across the universe. (Notice that to understand the full view of space and time in the concept of bubbles, it should be considered what it is discussed in other chapters of Galaxies for Intelligently Designed Minds, i.e. that the concept disagrees with Einstein tying time with gravitational properties, declaring that gravity is the curvature of the assumed space-time. In addition, the book claims that space is not homogenous or isotropic throughout the universe, as it is presently assumed).
The concept of bubbles assumes that each bubble of energy, its space-mass, generates it own time and gravitational balance. Therefore, each bubble would have a different time. However, it admits that the time of planets belonging to the same solar system, might be close enough to each other and any differencess may have escaped scrutiny.
The author points out that the convertibility of time makes hard to understand some of the aspects of it. He calls convertibility the possible arbitrary use of earth's time in association with the speed of light to map a certain area of our solar system quite successfully. Therefore, although the concept of bubbles disagrees with the idea that the speed of light is constant throughout the universe, it allows it is almost constant within the solar system's bubble and especially in the central area where the known planets are located. In other words, although the bubbles concept proposes the speed of light throughout the universe isn’t constant, it assumes that the differences within the relatively minuscule distances between the known planets of our solar system make the differences of no consequence for present purposes.
Still, the concept proposes and assumes that time differences even 'within' the bubbles of nearby planets could be substantial depending on the space-mass of the different bubbles of energy and their positions within the solar system.
Therefore, to try to use earth's time within the bubble of energy of, for example, Jupiter's bubble of energy would render flawed estimations. In addition, to use earth's time to try to measure distances and phenomena outside of our solar system could render distorted measurements.
To add to the complexity of time, the author concedes that perhaps earth's time could even be used arbitrarily to measure galactic distances providing that the speed at which light travels in different areas of the galaxy were known. He assumes that although the real distances calculated would be distorted, knowing the real speed of light in those different galactic areas could render a certain relative correlation between the positions of celestial objects, which would be proportionally consistent to the real ones. Although this would produce a distorted map of the topography of the galaxy, the distortions would be consistent across the board. This would be similar to what's observed in the similarly distorted Mercator projection of the earth, regarding the sizes of different areas of the map, but which still could be used successfully for general orientation and navigation.
In that sense, the author proposes that it is more important at this time to know the speed at which light travels through different areas of a galaxy and of the universe than to know the particular local times of different events through the same.
The possible existence of different times at different points of a galaxy and of the universe might seem not possible or practical. The chapter points out that although there would be different times, they would be harmonized just like the different wheels of a mechanical clock or watch are harmonized. It points out that while the hour wheel makes one full rotation every sixty minutes, the minute wheel makes a revolution per minute and a second one oscillates back and forth sixty times per minute. Likewise, the concept of bubbles proposes that although different systems in the universe would have different times, they would be harmonized within the engines of solar systems, galaxies and other celestial mechanisms. In the end, the time of a galaxy, or of a greater system, would be the sum and harmony of the times of the different systems that compose the same.
The chapter discusses Einstein concept of time dilation and posits that perhaps Dr. Einstein didn’t develop sufficiently his view. In the view of the author, Einstein saw time dilation as a different perception of time by observers moving at different speeds and observers from different frames of reference. However, apparently Einstein didn’t propose that different systems, such as solar systems within a galaxy travelling at different speeds through their outer space could have different times too.
The book expands the concept of time dilation and applies it to the different bubbles of energy encasing different celestial objects. In that sense, the time registered within a bubble traveling at a certain speed through its outer space would be different to the one perceived in another bubble moving in its orbit either at a slower or faster speed. Thus, the concept of bubbles applies an expanded notion of time dilation, in which different bubbles moving at different speeds relative to others would have different inner times. In addition, the author proposes that it is not only the speed of movement what determines the time within the bubble, but also its position or orbit inside the bigger bubble that contains it, as well as the space-mass combination of the bubble.
Finally, it claims that another factor determining the different times within different bubbles is that, unlike the experiments in which very precise and identical atomic clocks were used and compared, while one was at 'rest' and the other inside a high-speed aircraft; in the case of bubbles of energy, each bubble would have a different type of clock. In that sense, the bubbles concept considers that the actual space-mass of a bubble would be its own clock and time engine, being different from other bubble clocks.
Admittedly, time and its different facets are more complex than what science presently assumes. To get a full picture of the discussion about time from the perspective of bubbles of energy, please refer to chapter 12 of the book. In addition, check out the related chapters discussing space and its changing characteristics, the changing speed of light throughout the universe and what could be the causes of red and blue shifts of the light perceived from distant stars and galaxies.