Commentary on Chapter 18 of 'Galaxies For Intelligently Designed Minds'
This chapter is another important step in the description of the concept of bubbles of energy, as it addresses the popularized myth that 'outer' space is all the same type of space, isotropic and homogenous at large scales throughout the universe.
The assumption of homogeneity across of the universe can't be proved or disproved, but it is adhered to because it complements the central assumptions of the 'Standard' Model regarding the hypotheses of the big bang, the expansion of the universe and of the existence of a structural frame in the universe, aka the space-time. However, at smaller scales that can be experimented with, such as surrounding the earth, the nearby planets and nearer the sun, space is not homogeneous and isotropic at all.
Yes, so-called outer space is all made of space, but it is not 'all the same space' throughout the solar system. One of the possible reasons why the 'Standard' Model is blind to this is because it considers neither the difference in mass in different areas, nor what the bubbles concept calls the space-mass. (A unit of space-mass -regardless of its size and magnitude- could be defined as a bubble of energy generated by the interactions of a definite area of space and the mass present in it).
As mentioned, the space we are more familiar with, that has been studied and experimented more extensively, the nearby space, is not homogeneous and isotropic. For instance, 'space' within the earth's atmosphere and at different altitudes starting from sea level is not all the same. Anybody climbing a high mountain can feel that the 'space' has changed even at as low as 5,000 meters above sea level. Not to mention the space beyond the atmosphere but still belonging to earth, which is even more different from the one at low altitudes.
The chapter states that the space within one bubble of energy might be different from the space within others. In addition, it proposes that even within a single bubble of energy; space might be denser, hotter and heavier towards its center but lighter, cooler and less dense towards the outskirts of it. It repeats the concept that great amounts of the inner space of any bubble, towards the outskirts of the same, would be even lighter than the bubble's outer space.
Then, it explains why the entire bubble of the solar system would be lighter than the outer space it displaces, causing the outer space to press inwardly against the solar system's bubble. That pressure would intensify exponentially and be concentrated towards the center of the bubble, as the space available for each pressure vector proceeding from every point of the 'skin' of the bubble would be greatly reduced, while the pressure wouldn’t.
It picks up again the subject of one of the former chapters about buoyancy and discusses the basic design requirements of ships, aircraft and spacecraft to float and their differences. It points out than unlike aircraft but similar to ships, hot air balloons and some spacecraft, bubbles of energy don't seem to need propulsion engines to float, as the propulsion is provided by their host bubbles. In a later chapter, the roles electromagnetism and temperature play on that external propulsion system would be described in more detail.
The chapter anticipates the existence of a wide orbital path for each planet along the length of its orbit, on which the ratio of volume-to-weight of each bubble would render the same lighter than the outer space it displaces. Thus, the orbits of planets wouldn’t be like a line or a narrow path through which they travel, but instead as a wide orbital ring. These would be similar in shape to the rings of Saturn and be several times wider than the bubbles of energy of their respective planets, allowing each planet sufficient wiggle room within its own band to transit closer or farther to the Sun, still within its own orbital path.
To illustrate the possible difference between planetary bubbles and their respective outer spaces, it compares the known ratios of volume-to-mass of the planets Jupiter and Earth and it relates those differences to the differences of the outer spaces of each of the planets. In addition, it estimates the possible size of the earth's bubble of energy, which would be huge, hundreds of times bigger than the planet
It predicts that the bubble of the earth could have a diameter of at least 6,000,000 km and it compares it to the diameter of the planet (only about 12,000 km) and the diameter of the Hills sphere of earth, which is estimated at 3,000,000 km. Thus, the diameter of the earth's bubble could be at least 500 times larger than the earth's diameter and twice the diameter of its Hills sphere. This would render an immense bubble of energy, yet its radius would only be a fraction of the minimum distance between Earth and Venus, the nearest planet, which when closest stands 38,000,000 km away.
Assuming that Venus' bubble of energy has a similar diameter to earth's there would still be a distance of about 32,000,000 km between the bubbles of the two planets at their closest point. Thus, the great distance from any given planet to its closest neighbors would provide plenty of room for the mentioned planetary bubbles and their wide orbital paths. As mentioned, the paths would be similar to the ones observed in the planet Saturn, the difference being that the paths of most planets around the barycenter of the solar system wouldn't have the countless 'fragments' that populate the giant planet's equator, with the exception of Jupiter and its Trojan and Greek belts of asteroids.
As mentioned, if the earth's bubble were that big, there is a clear possibility that its interior away from the bubble's center would be filled with very light space, even lighter than the outer space surrounding the bubble. This would cause the bubble to float naturally on its orbital path, as it would be lighter than and displace a volume of outer space heavier than its own total weight.
Finally, it promises to discuss in a later chapter how the gravitational orbits of planets would be circular but in most cases appear to be elliptical, something that seem to contradict both, logic and the present "Standard'' beliefs about gravitational planetary orbits.
The significance of this chapter is that portrays the foundation for a completely new view of the solar system and by extension of a large portion of the universe. The view differs greatly and it is almost opposite to the prevalent 'Standard' belief that the universe is expanding endlessly and aimlessly, after the explosion of an assumed and imagined tiny dot some 13 billion years ago.
The chapter offers a glimpse of the possible existence of a stable but dynamic universe, with highly intelligent engines from the level of atoms to the one of clusters of galaxies and beyond; a view that continues to be expanded and refined throughout the remaining 33 chapters of the eBook.